Feedstocks used in the manufacture of polychlorinated alkanes 2. Typically, the pi bond breaks and the electrons from it are used to join the two carbon atoms to other things. We introduced the three simplest alkanesmethane ch4, ethane c2h6, and propane. General methods of preparation of alkanes wurtz reaction. Such names are part of the iupacsystem international union of pure and applied chemistry used by chemists to name organic chemistry. Unit 7 introduction to organic chemistry 3 lesson title and syllabus reference 8 alkanes as fuels ca11ei alkanes properties combustion. Pdf organic chemistry made easy for senior secondary schools. Alkanes the alkanes are a type of hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected only by single bonds. If you have fluorine coming off of the carbon chain, it is named as fluoro. Chapter 2 alkanes and cycloalkanes introduction to. Define alkanes show and explain how to name various alkanes introduction.
Alkanes are organic compounds that consist entirely of singlebonded carbon and hydrogen atoms and lack any other functional groups. The most simple alkane is methane with the formula ch 4. Learn the important physical and chemical properties of the alkanes. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carboncarbon bonds are single. When it comes to halogens, you have to change the ending ine to o. However, ignoring financial considerations, alkanes can be prepared from the following compounds. In addition to carbon dioxide, water and heat a variety of products are possible. Janice gorzynski smith university of hawaii chapter 4 alkanes. Such names are part of the iupac system international union of pure and applied chemistry used by chemists to name organic chemistry. General methods of preparation of alkanes is the topic which has a potential of fetching a question in iit jee and jee mainadvanced examination very frequently. Alkane sequences form the inert framework of most organic compounds. Sch 102 introduction to organic chemistry, chemistry of alkanes. Due to the valence configuration of carbon, there are a variety of alkane isomers, which are commonly separated into linear and branched structures.
Alkanes which have long carbon chains are often called paraffins in chemical industry. This is the probability or chance that harm will result from the use of a hazardous substance or a procedure hazards and risks. Alkanes are used as the basis for naming the majority of organic compounds their nomenclature. A halogen is also treated as a substituent when it comes to naming alkanes.
An introduction to general, organic, and biological chemistry, eleventh edition. If you have any issue with postbook pdf kindly contact us. Classes of hydrocarbons molecules that are made up of carbon and hydrogen 1. Alkanes are formed by a continuous chain of carbon atoms.
Organic chemistryalkanes wikibooks, open books for an. Alkanes made of carbon chains are named based on how many carbons make up the chain. Sch 102 introduction to organic chemistry, chemistry of. View notes chapter 2 alkanes and cycloalkanes introduction to hydrocarbons 1. Alkanes are generally unreactive and form the backbone skeleton of most organic molecules. Alkanes are rarely prepared from other types of compounds because of economic reasons. Isa organic and inorganic compounds hydrocarbons, properties and uses of organic compounds. Identify and name alkanes predict reactions of alkanes. They are also called saturated hydrocarbons because they have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon. The smallest alkeneethenehas two c atoms and is also known by its common.
An introduction to alkanes and alkenes teaching resources. B halogenation halogenation a substitution reaction. Overview of the intramolecular and intermolecular forces of attractions in organic molecules. Preparation of alkanes from unsaturated hydrocarbons. Apr 04, 2018 introduction to alkane alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon consist of carbon and hydrogen only without any functional group. The important reactions all centre around the double bond. Hydrocarbons di er primarily in the functional group. Like any other hydrocarbons, alkenes burn in air or oxygen, but these reactions are unimportant. It deals with their formulae and isomerism, their physical properties, and an introduction to their chemical reactivity. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
To me it appears like a primeval tropical forest full of the most remarkable things, a dreadful endless jungle into. An introduction alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons having onl. They are obtained primarily from natural sources such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Hydrocarbons are simple organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. To use physical and chemical properties to identify an unknown. In terms of occurrence and use, the simplest examples of alkanes are methane ch 4, the principal constituent of natural gas, ethane c 2 h 6, propane c 3 h 8, widely used as a gaseous fuel, and butane c 4 h 10, the liquid fuel in pocket lighters. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. All organic compounds are made up of at least carbon and hydrogen. Alkanes 2 organic chemistry nowadays almost drives me mad. Structure of organic compounds an organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms one or more cs and many hs.
This video will look at the properties of alkanes including branching, solubility, boiling points, polarity and reactivity. Names of alkanes change depending on how many carbons are in them, and in turn, how many hydrogens are attached to those. Learn the iupac system for naming alkanes and cycloalkanes. Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms have high molar masses are waxy solids at room temperature are used in waxy coatings of fruits and vegetables propane is used as a fuel in barbeques chemistry. Alkanes form a homologous series of moleculesthose with the same general formula and usually differing by one unit. Ca11eii alkanes uses importance as fuels, pollution effects. Properties of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes introduction hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Alkanes are the simplest organic molecules, consisting solely of singlybonded carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Alkanes can be burned in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. We will include compounds which contain a c bonded to a halogen also c1, f, br, i. Alkanes are unsaturated have no doubletriple bonds, but may have rings. Feb 09, 2015 introduction to nomenclature alkanes knowbee. Introduction to alkanes information up to this point, the nomenclature you have been studying in this series of activities has been for what are known as inorganic compounds. The first four alkanes are methane ch 4, ethane c 2 h 6, propane c 3 h 8 and butane c 4 h 10.
The most basic type of organic compound is one made up exclusively of sp3 carbons covalently bonded to other carbons and hydrogens through sigma bonds only. This section deals with wurtz reaction,frankland reaction. Ca11eiii petroleum quality of petrol, meaning of octane number. Classification of alkane there are three types of alkanes. Alkanes are used in a number of industrial applications and are found in natural gas. Introduction of a halogen into a molecule chlorination, bromination general reaction. One can use this relationship, along with the additive bond enthalpies. Aromatic compounds derive their names from the fact that many of these compounds in the early days of discovery were grouped because they were oils with fragrant odors.
If the carbon atoms are linked in chains, the compounds are called aliphatic compounds. Unsaturated hydrocarbons alkenes and alkynes react with h 2 in the presence of finely divided catalysts such as platinum, palladium or nickel to form alkanes. In addition to carbon dioxide, water and heat a variety of. Alkanes are molecules that consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, all connected by single bonds. Introduction to organic nomenclature alkanes, hydrocarbons, and functional groups. Alkane structure, properties and examples chemistry dictionary. Lecture handouts organic chemistry i chemistry mit.
Smaller, linear alkanes generally oxidize more readily than larger, more branched molecules. The process of using hydrogen gas to ensure all the products are alkanes is called hydrocracking. Introduction to mechanisms the bond has broken in a process called homolytic fission. To compare the chemical reactivity of an alkane, an alkene, and an aromatic compound. To me it appears like a primeval tropical forest full of the most remarkable things, a dreadful endless jungle into which one does not dare enter, for there seems to be no way out.
For example, octane with eight carbon atoms has the formula c 8 h 18. The most important reaction that alkanes undergo is combustion. Alkanes are less dense than water and swim on top of water 2. Alkanes prepared by rabi ann musah state university of new york at albany 2 4.
The individual members are said to be homologs of each other. In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin a historical name that also has other meanings, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes purpose. Any series that differs only by an increasing number of ch 2 groups is known as a homologous series. Pdf a textbook of organic chemistry by arun bahl pdf. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, which means that their carbon backbones contain no double or triple bonds. Atomic structure, chemical bonding, chemical structure and in organic compounds. The second alkane is ethane with the formula c 2 h 6. Pdf organic chemistry introduction numbers and types of bonds for a common elements in. Although their reactivities are often rather uninteresting, they provide an excellent basis for understanding bonding, conformation, and other. Guidance for reporting chemicals within the polychlorinated alkanes category 2.218 1576 1330 1442 396 232 848 1283 175 186 1058 695 1554 303 761 750 1422 977 744 1179 1486 1442 334 255 1216 217 864 113 1330 1153 74 1417 1195 179 1106 489 2 972 951 146 638 1241 293 145 1304 1040 936 1115